For an essay giving background on the contest, click here. The Bad Writing Contest celebrates the most stylistically lamentable passages found in scholarly books and articles published in the last few years.
I'd like to thank these sponsors for supporting this website. Just click on their ads to go to their websites. Miticides First published in: American Bee Journal February Colony health and production these days is largely a function of varroa levels in the hives—the more mites, the more problems.
Here is a status report on the current state of miticides. Varroa has settled in to roost, and beekeeping is clearly no longer the same as it was a mere twenty years ago!
What the most successful commercial beekeepers have found is that they can minimize losses by keeping tabs on varroa levels, and never allowing them to rise above a few per percent mites per hundred bees at any time of the year. Any reader of my articles is aware that I take a future view, and strongly promote the use writing a review of a scientific article mite resistant bee stocks such as the VSH and Russian stocks developed by the ARSand of biotechnical methods.
I personally walk the walk, and gave up synthetic miticides over ten years ago. However, to keep mite levels in check, I find that I still require the periodic use of some sort of treatment. I suggest that all beekeepers familiarize themselves with the pros and cons of the available miticides, should the need arise to save a colony from an ugly death.
You can visit ScientificBeekeeping. As I speak with commercial beekeepers across the country, I find that they, too, largely share a similar sentiment against synthetic miticides, although for more practical reasons—they are concerned about comb and honey contamination, colony and queen health issues, and the lack of viable alternatives to the currently popular chemicals.
The comb contamination issue is finally coming to the fore, with recent research, most as yet unpublished, indicating that miticide residues often coupled with pesticide contamination in the combs wreak havoc with bee brood and colony immunocompetence. We are our own worst enemy, as we tend to misuse or misapply every miticide at our disposal, and then use it without rotation until it is no longer effective, or until our combs become hopelessly contaminated.
The good news is that the future is looking a bit brighter, but it is going to require smarter management on our part—including using mite-resistant bee stocks, constant monitoring of mite levels, practicing integrated pest management, the use of more expensive miticides, and not thinking that we can get by doing the same danged thing year after year!
In general, mite treatments can be placed into one of three different categories: Mite levels often quickly rebound after treatment when more mites emerge from the brood, so it generally takes multiple treatments to actually bring mite levels down.
The release of the miticide is extended by formulating it into a plastic strip, or by mixing it into a carrier. Unfortunately, the problem with the synthetic miticides is the issue of comb contamination due to their lipophilic property they dissolve readily into beeswax and stability; amitraz being the exception amitraz and coumaphos may, however leave residues in honey.
These include essential oils, notably thymol, and formic acid. The problem with this mode of action is that it is temperature dependent not too hot or too coolare often disruptive to colony behavior, may cause the queen to cease egglaying temporarily, may kill some brood, and in the worst case may cause queen loss.
Synthetic Miticides The synthetic miticides are manmade chemicals, generally effective at very low concentrations. They have the huge advantage in that if they are already used as agricultural pesticides, then they have existing tolerance levels in food, and are inexpensive to manufacture.
The higher the margin of safety, the more leeway you have with dose and application method. One drawback of synthetics is that since their mode of action targets a single biological mechanism, mites have demonstrated the ability to quickly evolve resistance.
As the mites become resistant, that shifts the margin of safety down, until it approaches 1—the point at which is takes as high a concentration to kill a mite as it does to kill a bee, at which point the chemical would then be worthless for varroa control in a hive.
Fluvalinate does have some issues with comb contamination and can build up to levels that may negatively impact bees, queens and particularly drones.
More long-lasting changes in baseline brain function or anatomy, however, have not been observed in mnemonic experts, possibly because distributed effects or distinctive brain network connectivity patterns are difficult to detect on the basis of very small sample sizes. You need to introduce the main scientific publications on which your work is based, citing a couple of original and important works, including recent review articles. However, editors hate improper citations of too many references irrelevant to the work, or inappropriate judgments on your own achievements. Writing about traumatic, stressful or emotional events has been found to result in improvements in both physical and psychological health, in non-clinical and clinical populations.
If you should use it, be sure to test your bees afterward to confirm that it did indeed work! Apistan, Apiguard, Mite Away II, Sucrocide Section 18 Emergency Exemption from Registration A state can request an emergency exemption from federal registration in order to allow the use of an unregistered pesticide in an emergency situation there is no feasible alternative to the exemption.
A special local need could include a new pest, or a new application method or timing. Control of varroa is considered such a use. In order for a state to get an exemption for a new product, it has to give up a previous Section 18 treatment. Unfortunately, this often limits our available spectrum of legal varroacides.
That, coupled with its detrimental effects upon queens and brood, and serious long-term comb contamination, have caused it to lose popularity.
However, it is currently the only chemical registered for in-hive treatment against small hive beetle it must be applied carefully to minimize transfer to the combs. Amitraz Amitraz was effectively used when we first got the mite in the U.
It had a resurgence when coumaphos began to fail, and quickly became the current mainstay of U. Lately, amitraz, incorporated into Apivar strips, has been registered for use in some areas of Canada, and has been very effective, so long as the strips are properly applied.
There has been a section 18 application filed for Apivar that is still awaiting EPA response. Note that in the U. Hivastan has yet to be enthusiastically embraced by beekeepers.
A chill reverberated through the industry shortly after its release when one large beekeeper had an unfortunate and costly experience when the active ingredient fenpyroximate apparently interacted during cool weather with a fungicide from almonds.Writing Cover Letters for Scientific Manuscripts.
Release Date: September 29, Category: Scientific Writing. Key Points Summary. Always submit an . When I undertook the task of writing a scientific literature review article last year, I had hoped that a Google search would reveal a handful of how-to pages thoughtfully created by veterans of this particular writing .
Sadly, this isn’t the first time we’ve seen this tactic of advancing the climate-change agenda by any means necessary. President Obama’s Clean Power Plan is a particularly noteworthy example.
One of the most common questions I get is whether it is acceptable to use “we” or “I” in a scientific paper.
“We” or “I” are first-person pronouns. Tips for Writing Your First Scientific Literature Review Article This page, written by a grad student, gives first-hand advice about how to go about writing a review article for the first time. It is a quick, easy read that will help you find your footing as you begin!
Rule 3: Take Notes While Reading. If you read the papers first, and only afterwards start writing the review, you will need a very good memory to remember who wrote what, and what your impressions and associations were while reading each single paper.