Blog The Second Great Awakening By the beginning of the 19th century, traditional Christian beliefs were held in less favor by numerous educated Americans. This Second Great Awakening, a reprise of the Great Awakening of the early 18th century, was marked by an emphasis on personal piety over schooling and theology.
Background[ edit ] Like the First Great Awakening a half century earlier, the Second reflected Romanticism characterized by enthusiasm, emotion, and an appeal to the super-natural.
Pietism was sweeping German countries. Each denomination had assets that allowed it to thrive on the frontier. The Methodists had an efficient organization that depended on itinerant ministers, known as circuit riders, who sought out people in remote frontier locations.
The circuit riders came from among the common people, which helped them establish rapport with the frontier families they hoped to convert. Postmillennialism Postmillennialism theology dominated American Protestantism in the first half of the 19th century.
Postmillennialists believed that Christ will return to earth after the "millennium", which could entail either a literal 1, years or a figurative "long period" of peace and happiness. Christians thus had a duty to purify society in preparation for that return. This duty extended beyond American borders to include Christian Restorationism.
George Fredrickson argues that Postmillennial theology "was an impetus to the promotion of Progressive reforms, as historians have frequently pointed out.
By the s, however, the great day had receded to the distant future, and postmillennialism became a more passive religious dimension of the wider middle-class pursuit of reform and progress. Burned-over district In the early nineteenth century, western New York State was called the " burned-over district " because of the highly publicized revivals that crisscrossed the region.
Pritchard uses statistical data to show that compared to the rest of New York State, the Ohio River Valley in the lower Midwest, and the country as a whole, the religiosity of the Burned-over District was typical rather than exceptional.
Most of the Scots-Irish immigrants before the American Revolutionary War settled in the backcountry of Pennsylvania and down the spine of the Appalachian Mountains.
Baptists and Methodist revivals were successful in some parts of the Tidewater in the South, where an increasing number of common planters, plain folkand slaves were converted. Revival of In the newly settled frontier regions, the revival was implemented through camp meetings.
These often provided the first encounter for some settlers with organized religion, and they were important as social venues.
Settlers in thinly populated areas gathered at the camp meeting for fellowship as well as worship. The sheer exhilaration of participating in a religious revival with crowds of hundreds and perhaps thousands of people inspired the dancing, shouting, and singing associated with these events.
Upon their return home, most converts joined or created small local churches, which grew rapidly. The first informal camp meeting began there in June, when people began camping on the grounds of the Red River Meeting House.
One year later, an even larger sacrament occasion was held at Cane Ridge, Kentucky under Barton Stone, attracting perhaps as many as 20, people. Numerous PresbyterianBaptist and Methodist ministers participated in the services.
Thanks to such leaders as Barton W. Stone — and Alexander Campbell —the camp meeting revival became a major mode of church expansion for the Methodists and Baptists. Cane Ridge was also instrumental in fostering what became known as the Restoration Movement.
This was made up of non-denominational churches committed to what they saw as the original, fundamental Christianity of the New Testament. Churches with roots in this movement include the Churches of ChristChristian Church Disciples of Christand the Evangelical Christian Church in Canada  Church membership soars[ edit ] Methodist camp meeting The Methodist circuit riders and local Baptist preachers made enormous gains; to a lesser extent the Presbyterians gained members, particularly with the Cumberland Presbyterian Church in sparsely settled areas.
As a result, the numerical strength of the Baptists and Methodists rose relative to that of the denominations dominant in the colonial period—the Anglicans, Presbyterians, Congregationalists.
A source estimated at least three female converts to every two male converts between and Young people those under 25 also converted in greater numbers, and were the first to convert.Introduction.
The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant revival movement during the early nineteenth century. The movement began around and gained momentum by ; after , membership rose rapidly among Baptist and Methodist congregations, whose .
7 Enlightenment & Great Awakening. some of their emphasis on Enlightenment progress made its way into the Freemasons, too, mainly in the form of the post United Church of Christ.
The Second Great Awakening also reinvigorated the mainstream evangelical faiths (Baptist, Methodist, New Side Presbyterian) popularized in the First .
The Second Great Awakening was a religious revival that occurred in the United States beginning in the late eighteenth century and lasting until the middle of . The Second Great Awakening By the beginning of the 19th century, traditional Christian beliefs were held in less favor by numerous educated Americans.
A countervailing tendency was underway, however, in the form of a tremendous religious revival that spread westward during the century's first half. Second Great Awakening Main article: Second Great Awakening The Second Great Awakening was a religious revival that occurred in the United States beginning in the late eighteenth century and lasting until the middle of the nineteenth century.
The Second Great Awakening was a time of evangelical fervor and revival in the newly formed nation of America. The British colonies were settled by many individuals who were looking for a place to worship their Christian religion free from persecution.