Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. From the schism to the Reformation A major factor in the consolidation and expansion of Christianity in the West was the growth in the prestige and power of the bishop of Rome. Leo I made the primacy of the Roman bishop explicit both in theory and in practice and must be counted as one of the most important figures in the history of the centralization of authority in the church.
Europe, to The term Reformation refers in general to the major religious changes that swept across Europe during the s, transforming worship, politics, society, and basic cultural patterns.
One key dimension was the Protestant Reformation, the movement that began in with Martin Luther 's critique of doctrinal principles and church actions in Germany and that led to the establishment of new official churches—the Lutheran, the Reformed or Calvinist, and the Anglican.
These were separate from the Latin Catholic Church in organization and different from it in theology. Many other dissident groups and individuals, collectively known as the Radical Reformation, also emerged during the turmoil of the s and s, building communities despite frequent persecution.
Ongoing efforts to reform the old church took on new urgency in response to these challenges, leading to a distinct Catholic Reformation. The Protestant Reformation affected patterns of change in Europe through Protestant theology's shifting theological emphases, through Protestant piety's emphasis on reading and knowledge, and through new alignments between organized churches and politics.
Because of the complex course and multiple outcomes of the Reformation movements, historians today speak of multiple Reformations during the first two-thirds of the s—the Protestant, the Radical, and the Catholic; the urban, the peasants', and the princely; or the German, French, and British.
The Protestant Reformation was embedded in larger processes that included the emergence of national states, new encounters with the outside world, and deep socioeconomic shifts.
The breakdown of religious unity and the establishment of multiple churches in this era highlights the central role that religion played in early modern European self-understanding. Doctrinal and ceremonial changes had consequences for every aspect of society, from family life and gender roles to art and philosophy.
As we learn more about different historical actors and their varying goals, we can no longer view the Reformation as a single conflict between Luther and the popes or as a single movement, positive or negative. Rather, we must approach the Reformation by looking carefully at the spiritual aspirations, the cultural frameworks, and the material circumstances of the people whose lives it transformed.
The idea of reformation had a long history in Western thought beforewith two main meanings: Augustine 's statement that "man is not able to reform himself as he is able to deform himself" durably connected reformation with individual conversion and divine grace, although during the Middle Ages the word could refer to any systematic change.
Because the term implied renewal or even rebirth, it could also be associated with the renaissance of classical learning. By the late s, the "reformation" of monasteries became a central goal of the Observant movements that sought to restore the principles of their orders' founders, and by the s, calls for a "reformation in head and members" of the entire church had become loud.
When evangelical thinkers in the early s called for radical changes in the church, they too described their project as a "reformation," as did those who sought to improve the church from within. Most sixteenth-century reformers hoped that a single purified church would be the outcome, while others saw religious division as a sign of the imminent Apocalypse.
Only afterwhen it became clear that the division among western European Christians was permanent, did the term "Reformation" become the name for the movements that created the division as well as for the period during which the division took place.
Developments in formal theology, in broader cultural life, and in different European regions all confirm the continuity between the Reformation and earlier historical processes.
For example, disputes among academic theologians raised issues similar to those later addressed by Luther and other Reformation thinkers. Late medieval followers of St.
Thomas Aquinas's via antiqua 'old path' argued against adherents of the via moderna 'new path' developed by William of Ockham —while mystical thinkers sought to bypass the confining procedures of Scholastic theology entirely.
Particularly in the s, learned churchmen disagreed about such fundamental issues as God 's sovereignty, the place of human effort in gaining salvation, and the effects of sin and grace on the human soul.Learn european history medieval renaissance reformation with free interactive flashcards.
Choose from different sets of european history medieval renaissance reformation flashcards on Quizlet. christianity: christianity in western europe Although the history of Christianity in each of the regions to which it has spread manifests certain special characteristics that set it apart, the development of Christianity within the history of western Europe has in many decisive ways shaped its development in all other regions.
From the schism to the Reformation. Scholasticism is a landmark both in the history of Christianity and in the history of Western culture and a symbol of the Christianization of the dawn of the scientific age, the culture of the Renaissance—all these factors, and others besides, helped to break up the “medieval synthesis.” Among.
Lortz an intellectual, Catholic Historian explains the reformation with reference to the medieval break up of Western Christianity.
Lortz provides revealing evidence of a late medieval break down in the universality of the Catholic Church, which shook 5/5(8).
What Caused the Protestant Reformation? Disdain and mistrust of the Catholic Church was the major cause for the Protestant Reformation.
Reformers particularly decried the selling of indulgences and offering of forgiveness for sins in exchange for money; the practice of selling religious positions in. Reformation, also called Protestant Reformation, the religious revolution that took place in the Western church in the 16th century.
Its greatest leaders undoubtedly were Martin Luther and John Calvin.