Notes on how the arab spring

More Information Why the uprisings now?

Notes on how the arab spring

Naming[ edit ] The Bahraini uprising is also known as 14 February uprising [58] and Pearl uprising. Background of the Bahraini uprising of The roots of the uprising date back to the beginning of the 20th century.

The Bahraini people have protested sporadically throughout the last decades demanding social, economic and political rights.

History of Bahrain — Left to right: The National Union Committee in and the religious block in Parliament The country has been ruled by the House of Khalifa since the Bani Utbah invasion of Bahrain inand was a British protectorate for most of the 20th century.

InCharles Belgrave a British national operating as an "adviser" to the ruler became the de facto ruler and oversaw the transition to a modern state. Ina one-month uprising erupted by oil workers was crushed. The following year a new British "adviser" was appointed.

Ian Henderson was then known for allegedly ordering torture and assassinations in Kenya. InBahrain became an independent state and in the country held its first parliamentary election.

However, only two years after the end of British rule, the constitution was suspended and the assembly dissolved by the Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa the Emir at the time.

Insociety leaders demanded the return of the parliament and constitution, which the government rejected.

Notes on how the arab spring

Throughout the uprising large demonstrations and acts of violence occurred. Over forty people were killed including several detainees while in police custody and at least three policemen. He successfully ended the uprising in after introducing wide-ranging reformswhich The following year, opposition associations "felt betrayed" after the government issued a unilateral new constitution.

Despite earlier promises, the appointed Consultative Councilthe upper houseof the National Assembly of Bahrain was given more powers than the elected Council of Representativesthe lower house. The Haq Movement was founded and utilized street protests to seek change instead of bringing change within the parliament.

The government had committed wide range violations including systematic torture. Other opposition groups including Al Wefaq, Bahrain's main opposition party, did not explicitly call for or support protests; however its leader Ali Salman demanded political reforms.

A few weeks before the protests, the government made a number of concessions such as offering to free some of the children arrested in the August crackdown and increased social spending.

He demanded to end torture and discrimination, release political activists and rewrite the constitution. Agence France-Presse linked payments to the 14 February demonstration plans. Timeline of the Bahraini uprising —present Protesters gather at the Pearl Roundabout for the first time on 15 February Protests began on 14 Februarybut met immediate reaction from security forces.

Over thirty protesters were reportedly injured and one was killed as Bahraini government forces used tear gasrubber bullets and Birdshot to break up demonstrations, but protests continued into the evening, drawing several hundred participants.

When they neared the Pearl Roundabout, the army opened fire injuring dozens and fatally wounding one. Subsequent days saw large demonstrations; on 21 February, a pro-government "Gathering of National Unity" drew tens of thousands, [13]: Thousands carrying flowers and flags participated, but were blocked by riot police.

During the same day, tens of thousands participated in a march in Manama organized by Al Wefaq. The same day, U.

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Defense Secretary Robert Gates was conducting a visit to the country. Riot police intervened by firing tear gas, rubber bullets and sound bombs on opposition protesters.

During the day, the General Federation of Workers Trade Unions in Bahrain called for a general strike and the crown prince announced a statement outlining seven principles to be discussed in the political dialogue, including "a parliament with full authority" and "a government that represents the will of the people".

Saudi Arabia deployed about 1, troops with armoured support, and the United Arab Emirates deployed about police officers. The forces crossed into Bahrain via the King Fahd Causeway. The purported reason of the intervention was to secure key installations.The challenge presented by competing forms of centralization may have become clearer in the wake of the Arab Spring, especially in comparing events in Egypt and Libya.

Syria since the ‘Arab Spring’: 8 key facts Bashar al-Assad’s government brutally suppressed mass protests which began on 15 March The violent response sparked the region’s most severe armed conflict in which more than , people have been killed, according to the UN.

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Notes on how the arab spring

members. Voices of the Arab Spring. Personal Stories from the Arab Revolutions. Asaad Al-Saleh. Foreword by Peter Sluglett.

ICFUAE | International Campaign For Freedom in the UAE

Columbia University Press. NOTES ON THE ARAB SPRING 2 essays on the recent rebellions across North Africa and the Middle East.

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The Arab Spring / Useful Notes - TV Tropes