Beane shattered traditional MLB beliefs that big payrolls equated wins by implementing a statistical methodology that led the Oakland A's, one of the worst teams in baseball with one of the lowest payrolls, to six American League West Division Titles. He has helped to shape the way modern businesses view and leverage big data and employ analytics for long-term success. Beginning inBeane and former Assistant GM Paul DePodesta shattered antiquated MLB beliefs that big payrolls could mean more wins by implementing an unorthodox by MLB standards strategic methodology that led one of the worst teams in the American League to become a perennial postseason contender.
Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in the 12th century BC, but its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era. Three of the commanderies fell or retreated westward within a few decades. As Lelang commandery was destroyed and rebuilt around this time, the place gradually moved toward Liaodong.
Goguryeo, the largest and most powerful among them, was a highly militaristic state,   and competed with various Chinese dynasties during its years of history.
Goguryeo experienced a golden age under Gwanggaeto the Great and his son Jangsu    who both subdued Baekje and Silla during their times, achieving a brief unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea and becoming the most dominant power on the Korean Peninsula.
Balhae was founded by a Goguryeo general and formed as a successor state to Goguryeo. Relationships between Korea and China remained relatively peaceful during this time. Later Silla carried on the maritime prowess of Baekjewhich acted like the Phoenicia of medieval East Asia and during the 8th and 9th centuries dominated the seas of East Asia and the trade between China, Korea and Japan, most notably during the time of Jang Bogo ; in addition, Silla people made overseas communities in China on the Shandong Peninsula and the mouth of the Yangtze River.
Inthe Later Three Kingdoms were united by Wang Geona descendant of Goguryeo nobility,  who established Goryeo as the successor state of Goguryeo. Goryeo was never conquered by the Mongols, but exhausted after three decades of fighting, the Korean court sent its crown prince to the Yuan capital to swear allegiance to Kublai Khanwho accepted, and married one of his daughters to the Korean crown prince.
During this period, the two nations became intertwined as all subsequent Korean kings married Mongol princesses,  and the last empress of the Yuan dynasty was a Korean princess.
However, inGeneral Yi Seong-gyewho had been ordered to attack China, turned his army around and staged a coup. Yi Seong-gye declared the new name of Korea as "Joseon" in reference to Gojoseon, and moved the capital to Hanseong one of the old names of Seoul.
Between andToyotomi Hideyoshi launched invasions of Koreabut his advance was halted by Korean forces most notably the Joseon Navy led by Admiral Yi Sun-sin and his renowned " turtle ship "      with assistance from Righteous Army militias formed by Korean civilians, and Ming dynasty Chinese troops.
Through a series of successful battles of attrition, the Japanese forces were eventually forced to withdraw, and relations between all parties became normalized. However, the Manchus took advantage of Joseon's war-weakened state and invaded in andand then went on to conquer the destabilized Ming dynasty.
After normalizing relations with the new Qing dynastyJoseon experienced a nearly year period of peace.
Kings Yeongjo and Jeongjo particularly led a new renaissance of the Joseon dynasty during the 18th century. Furthermore, the Joseon government adopted a strict isolationist policy, earning the nickname "the hermit kingdom ", but ultimately failed to protect itself against imperialism and was forced to open its borders.
North Korea and South Korea. In the South, Syngman Rheean opponent of communism, who had been backed and appointed by the United States as head of the provisional government, won the first presidential elections of the newly declared Republic of Korea in May.
In the North, however, a former anti-Japanese guerrilla and communist activist, Kim Il-sung was appointed premier of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea in September.
The UN declared Rhee's government as "a lawful government having effective control and jurisdiction over that part of Korea where the UN Temporary Commission on Korea was able to observe and consult" and the Government "based on elections which was observed by the Temporary Commission" in addition to a statement that "this is the only such government in Korea.
This allowed the UN to intervene in a civil war when it became apparent that the superior North Korean forces would unify the entire country.
After an ebb and flow that saw both sides almost pushed to the brink of extinction, and massive losses among Korean civilians in both the north and the south, the war eventually reached a stalemate. The armistice, never signed by South Korea, split the peninsula along the demilitarized zone near the original demarcation line.
No peace treaty was ever signed, resulting in the two countries remaining technically at war. A period of political instability followed, broken by General Park Chung-hee 's May 16 coup against the weak and ineffectual government the next year.
Park took over as president until his assassination inoverseeing rapid export-led economic growth as well as implementing political repression. Park was heavily criticised as a ruthless military dictator, who in extended his rule by creating a new constitutionwhich gave the president sweeping almost dictatorial powers and permitted him to run for an unlimited number of six-year terms.
However, the Korean economy developed significantly during Park's tenure and the government developed the nationwide expressway systemthe Seoul subway systemand laid the foundation for economic development during his year tenure.
The years after Park's assassination were marked again by political turmoil, as the previously suppressed opposition leaders all campaigned to run for president in the sudden political void. On May 17, Chun Doo-hwan forced the Cabinet to expand martial law to the whole nation, which had previously not applied to the island of Jejudo.
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