There are 2 traditional approaches to the study of political culture. The "individualistic" approach examines the values and attitudes of individuals, frequently through the use of surveys. Because political culture cannot be directly measured, respondents are asked questions designed to illuminate their views about political culture. Unfortunately, there is always the possibility that the questions asked do not adequately represent the feelings of the population and may not properly measure the concepts being tested.
The name Canada is derived from the Iroquoian word kanata, which means village. Canada is located in the northern portion of the continent of North America, extending, in general, from the 49th parallel northward to the islands of the Arctic Ocean.
Its eastern and western boundaries are the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans respectively. Its land area totals 3, square miles 9, square kilometers.
The easternmost portion of the country is a riverine and maritime environment, consisting of the provinces of Newfoundland, Labrador, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and New Brunswick.
The central portion of the country, in its southern areas, is primarily boreal forest the provinces of Ontario and Quebec. This forest region extends across the entire country from the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains through to the Atlantic coast, and is dominated by coniferous trees.
A section of the country westward from the Great Lakes basin along the southern extent of this forest region is a prairie made up mostly of flat grasslands in the provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta.
The westernmost portion of the country is dominated by the Rocky Mountains, with a narrow riverine environment, made up of northern rain forests, west of the mountains in the Canadian provincial political cultures of British Columbia.
Between the southern Carolinian forest of the central regions of the country lies a region in Ontario and Quebec characterized by numerous lakes and expanses of exposed rock known as the Canadian Shield, an area left exposed after the most recent glacial retreat.
Across the northernmost portion of the country from east to west lies a region dominated by tundra and finally at its most northern reach, an arctic eco-zone in northern Ontario and Quebec and in the territories of Nunavut, Northwest Territories, and the Yukon.
These variations have had important social and cultural effects. The largest segment of the population resides in the central Carolinian region, which has the richest and most varied agricultural land and, because the Great Lakes waterway system dominates the central portion of the country, is also where most of the major manufacturing is located.
The savanna or prairie region is more sparsely populated, with Canadian provincial political cultures large urban centers in a network across the region, which is dominated by grain farming, cattle and other livestock production, and more recently, oil and natural gas extraction.
The two coastal regions, which have some agricultural production, are best characterized by the dominance of port cities through which import and export goods move.
In the northern section of the center of the country, also sparsely populated, resource extraction of minerals and lumber, has predominated.
The effect of this concentration of the population, employment, and productive power in the central region of the country has been the concentration of political power in this region, as well as the development over time of intense regional rivalries and disparities in quality of life.
Equally important, as employment in the center came to dominate gross national production, immigration has tended to flow into the center. This has created a diverse cultural mix in the central region of the country, while the prairie and the eastern maritime region have stabilized ethnically and culturally.
The consequence of these diverse geographies has been the development of a rhetoric of regional cultures: Prairie, Maritime, Central, and because of its special isolation, West Coast. A final differentiation is between urban and rural.
Local cultural identity is often marked by expressions of contrasting values in which rural residents characterize themselves as harder working, more honest, and more deeply committed to community cooperation, in contrast to urban dwellers Canada who are characterized by rural residents as greedy, dishonest, arrogant, and self-interested.
Urban dwellers express their own identities as more modern and forward looking, more sophisticated, and more liberal in their overall social values, and perceive rural residents as conservative, overdependent on outmoded traditions, unsophisticated, and simple minded.
This distinction is most explicit in Quebec, but also plays a key role in political, social, and cultural contentions in Ontario. The official population at the last census calculation, inwas 29,, an increase over the previous census in of about 6 percent in five years.
The previous five-year increase was almost 7 percent. There has been a slowing population increase in Canada over the last several decades, fueled in part by a decline in the crude birthrate. This slowing of growth has been offset somewhat by an increase in immigration over the last two decades of the twentieth century, coupled with a slowing of emigration.
Statistics Canada, the government Census management organization, is projecting a population increase of as much as 8 percent between andmostly through increased immigration. Canada is bilingual, with English and French as the official languages. English takes precedence in statutory proceedings outside of Quebec, with English versions of all statutes serving as the final arbiter in disputes over interpretation.
As ofthe proportion of Canadians reporting English as their mother tongue was just under 60 percent while those reporting French as their mother tongue was slightly less than 24 percent. The percentage of native English speakers had risen over the previous decade, while that of French speakers had declined.
At the same time, about 17 percent of all Canadians could speak both official languages, though this is a regionalized phenomenon.
In those provinces with the largest number of native French speakers Quebec and New Brunswick38 percent and 33 percent respectively were bilingual, numbers that had been increasing steadily over the previous twenty years.
In contrast, Ontario, which accounts for more than 30 percent of the total population of Canada, had an English-French bilingualism rate of about 12 percent. This is in part a result of the immigration patterns over time, which sees the majority of all immigrants gravitating to Ontario, and in part because all official and commercial services in Ontario are conducted in English, even though French is available by law, if not by practice.
English-French bilingualism is less important in the everyday lives of those living outside of Quebec and New Brunswick. First Nations language groups make up a significant, if small, portion of the nonofficial bilingual speakers in Canada, a fact with political and cultural importance as First Nations groups assert greater and more compelling claims on political and cultural sovereignty.
The three largest First Nations languages in were Cree, Inuktitut, and Ojibway, though incomplete census data on First Nations peoples continues to plague assessments of the extent and importance of these mother tongues.
Changing immigration patterns following World War II affected linguistic affiliation. In the period, from tofor example, only 54 percent of immigrants had a nonofficial language as mother tongue, with more than two-thirds of this group born in Europe.
Almost a quarter of them reported Italian, German, or Greek as mother tongue. In contrast, 80 percent of the 1, immigrants who came to Canada between and reported a nonofficial language as mother tongue, with over half from Asia and the Middle East.edy a shortage in Canadian political studies, that of comparative provincial political cultures.
Political historians have not taken the trouble to compare Canada’s re-. The culture of Canada embodies the artistic, culinary, literary, humour, musical, political and social elements that are representative of Canada and Canadians.
Throughout Canada's history, its culture has been influenced by European culture and traditions, especially British and French, and by its own indigenous cultures.
Over time, elements of the cultures of Canada's immigrant populations. Provinces is now established as the most comprehensive yet accessible exploration of Canadian provincial politics and government. The authors of each chapter draw on their particular expertise to examine themes and issues pertaining to all the provinces from a comparative perspective.
Provincial Political Cultures, Nelson Wiseman 2. Canadians (French: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of timberdesignmag.com connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, several (or all) of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being Canadian..
Canada is a multilingual and multicultural society home to people of many different ethnic, religious, and national origins. Canadian political culture is multi-layered and diverse.
Three great countries have influenced the development of this culture - The United States, The Great Britain and France. Thus, when it comes to Canada, it can not be studied in isolation from the rest of North America and Europe.
Bernadeen McLeod is the principal behind Mentor Works Ltd. As a corporate mentor and specialist in Canadian small business government grants and loans, she helps executives and business owners redefine their organizations in new and exciting ways – to build engaged teams and increase profits.