Westward-moving British colonists were particularly aggressive in their desire for new tracts of wilderness. The French, in order to prevent further British encroachment on what they believed to be French lands, began to construct a series of forts along the Ohio River. Eventually, the two sides came into conflict when a young lieutenant colonel from Virginia named George Washington attacked French troops with his small militia force and established Fort Necessity.
After the fourth of these conflicts, the Seven Years' or French and Indian Warthe British government tried to reform the now greatly expanded empire. The American colonists resisted, creating a series of crises that culminated in the armed rebellion of Britain 's greatest weapon was its funded national debt, which harnessed private savings to military ends.
British financiers, managing the joint stock corporations—the Bank of Englandthe South Seas Company, the East India Company—loaned the government money in wartime; the government used postwar tax revenues to pay interest on what became a perpetual debt.
The demand for revenues stimulated the growth of another fiscal engine, the Treasury. Each war's demands—and the stability of a securities market underwritten by tax monies—overrode the objections of those who feared expansion of state power.
New England colonists attacked Canadaconquering Louisbourg, the naval base that controlled access to the St.
This independent foreign policy outraged British administrators, especially Lord Halifax. Between andHalifax and his associates at the Board of Trade planned reforms to ensure that in future wars the empire would function as a unit. In the war's early years, beforethe colonists traded with the enemy and refused to pay for British military operations.
The ministry of William Pitt —61 solved the first problem by offering to reimburse the colonies for part of their war expenses; the second solved itself as Britain conquered French colonies in Canada and the Caribbean.
Pitt's victories and policies, however, doubled the national debt and made his successor determined to contain costs and reform the empire.
Beginning with George Grenville ina series of British ministers tightened the bonds of empire while trying to spread some of the costs of imperial defense to the colonies. They revived Halifax's plans to increase metropolitan supervision over imperial trade and the internal polities of the colonies, but also responded to the urgent legacies of war.
As early asWhitehall planned to station fifteen regular army battalions permanently in America, with the colonists paying the bill. When the Peace of Paris in added all France 's holdings east of the Mississippi River to the empire, the army became the de facto administrator of the conquests.
Ministerial efforts to stamp out illegal trade which resumed after the peace treaty returned to France its richest sugar islands coincided with attempts to subordinate the colonies to the metropolis. Chaos ensued when Parliament tried to extract money directly from the colonies with the Stamp Act of The Stamp Act protests expressed outrage at British control.
In the face of virtual anarchy, Parliament repealed the Stamp Act in Marchbut rejected the American understanding of taxation. According to British constitutional conceptions, taxation was a function of sovereignty the state's ultimate power to take property and lifewhich the Glorious Revolution had vested in the king in Parliament.
Parliament made its claims explicit by asserting its sovereignty over the colonies in a Declaratory Act that preceded the Stamp Act repeal.
AfterParliament searched for ways to assert its authority. Deliberation and nonviolence marked this phase of resistance as radical leaders in several provinces clarified American political principles and promoted intercolonial cooperation.
The result, a reasonably effective boycott of British imports indemonstrated the colonies' ability to dispense with the empire. Unable to retreat in any way that would grant the validity of colonial arguments, Parliament in the spring of opted at the urging of a new prime ministerLord North to repeal all but one of the Townshend Duties.
Retaining a single taxon tea, kept up Parliament's claim to authority while conciliating the colonists. This concession came none too soon. On 5 Marchthe same day North proposed partial repeal in Parliament, a squad of British soldiers fired into a taunting Boston crowd, killing five men.
In the face of uncontrollable riots, Gen. Thomas Gagethe British commander in chief, handed over the soldiers for trial and withdrew the troops from Boston.The Albany Congress and the Albany Plan of Union Pennsylvanian traders and members of the Ohio Company began clashing with French troops in the late s and early s.
Earlier Attempts to Join (or Die!) In the years leading up to the 's, there had been a few periods of intense "conversation" in the face of other crises such as . In his "Scheme for Uniting the Northern Colonies" found favor with delegates at the Albany Congress — this on July 10 — but was ignored by the Colonies themselves.
–How did imperial competition between Britain & France lead to the French & Indian War? French and Indian War. Class Activity Use the map met at the Albany Congress to discuss the common problem of Indian attacks Benjamin Franklin The colonists lacked the unity to solve a common problem. Ben Franklin’s “Albany Plan of Union”. The Stamp Act Congress issued a “Declaration of Rights and Grievances,” which, like the Virginia Resolves, declared allegiance to the king and “all due subordination” to Parliament but also reasserted the idea that colonists were entitled to the same rights as Britons. To confront the French presence in the Ohio Valley, the British North American colonies convened the Albany Congress in The delegates sought to solidify alliances with Native Americans against the French, but also to unify the colonies under Ben Franklin's Albany Plan of Union.
It would be too long to speak of Franklin's life in the years that followed. The Congress endorsed the Virginia resolves, and in doing so, became the first united coalition of the North American colonies. As colonists persisted in their objections to the Stamp Act, whether by formal convention or by vigilante action, the distinction between internal and external parliamentary taxes began .
Colonial Growth and the Clash of Empires Seth Adler. I. Colonial Growth (’s) A. The Restoration Colonies were established during Charles II reign. B.
The fourth war was the French and Indian War (), was a global conflict that started in the Ohio River Valley 1. The war began when George Washington attacked the French near.
These two lines of analysis are not necessarily contradictory. It political, moral and religious crises that had led to the Philadelphia process. A realistic assessment of the nature of the EU, of the international context 2 Fall EUSA Review lification.